探讨回应的方法

English

李勇政:探讨回应的方法 文/蓝庆伟   虽然很多时候李勇政的作品会令人直接联想到各种社会事件,但我仍喜欢称他为观念艺术家,只不过在他的素材中涉及了社会事件。他的作品涵盖面远超意识形态层面的讨论,不同的艺术家习惯于使用不同的素材,同时也表达着不同的观点,尤其是在多元艺术史的背景下。是把社会正在发生的事情作为主体,还是把它们作为艺术创作的手段,是我们区分李勇政艺术创作价值的依据。“如何定义正在发生的事情?”这是李勇政给自己的创作提出的问题,在回答这个问题的时候,李勇政使用了一种“正在发展的眼光”——这不像是艺术家对自己的观看,更像是一种观众视角的观看,这也是李勇政在创作中经常使用的手法:一件作品不会只有一种最终产品,已经实现的作品很可能只不过是新作品的因素。在创作中,李勇政把一切在自己身上发生过的艺术品都转化为新的材料,同时他也毫不忌讳地反复使用相同的素材——如水和盐——来创作不同的作品。如果将李勇政的作品进行分类,会涉及一些宏观的词汇:生命的回应、历史的温度、以社会介入社会、网络与“游戏”。但在作品的构成上又是相对具体的,所涉及的材料均可进行简单列举:水、盐、金属、旧画作、网络,而其所涉及的手法也并不高深:替换、转换、交换。如同他的作品《看!看!》(2013),既让人沉浸又让人不断地被唤醒,李勇政用自己的方式来探讨着回应的方法,而回应的本体则是这个世界。   李勇政似乎对盐与水有着特殊的情怀,与盐相关的作品有《盐的刚仁波切山》(2009)、《木板上的食盐》(2012)、《被消费的盐和刚仁波切山》、《被挟持的山峰》(2015);与水相关的作品有《以金属为媒介的水与火》(2011)、《湿润的碑》(2013)、《遭遇》(2014)。这在其不多的创作中占据了大多数的位置,之所以探讨(海)水、盐,并非是李勇政对两种形态的临界关系有着特殊关注,而是对两种形态的循环更感兴趣。在他看来,盐是生命的象征,大海是能量的源泉,大海的死亡形成了盐,而盐遇水则又化成了水——盐的死亡形成了水。伴随着生命、死亡、轮回,再来看艺术家《死亡,我多年的梦想》(2015)这件作品,不可否认的是这件作品的灵感来源于现实中的社会事件,“死亡是我多年的梦想”也是来自于自杀少年的简单遗书,自杀事件与遗书同样令人触动。如果只是简单地将作品《死亡,是我多年的梦想》与社会事件挂钩并且放大,是对艺术家的不公平,同时也是将创作灵感混同于创作。艺术家似乎使用了在《被消费的刚仁波切山》作品中的创作手法,只不过在这件作品中,艺术家使用加湿器来融化一座盐山,而《死亡,我多年的梦想》则更加强化了生命与轮回的关系,即便是喜马拉雅山脉的刚仁波切山的盐也是来自于海洋,艺术家使用死亡的海洋——刚仁波切山盐,放置于海滩之上,通过海潮的冲刷回归大海。   如果你愿意,你的生活将会每天被各种各样的新闻充斥,在口口相传的时代,信件常常被视为信息的载体而同时被今天这个信息时代所怀念,那是一个在清静中等待信息的时代,等待的时间比实际传播的时间更长。而在被称为信息时代的今天,每个人都像是一个上满发条的发条橙,被塞满各类信息的同时来不及做任何的思考。与昨日不同,这是一个在信息中寻找清静的时代,这样的清静是身处媒体阴形价值观塑造中保持自我,无论载体——报纸还是网络——如何变化,信息时代中更需要保持对信息的警惕。在各类信息中找寻转瞬即逝——当下有太多的“被定义”发生,如同大海捞针般让人常常不得法,而如何找寻“定义”的载体,成为李勇政在面对今天所发出的一个问候。如同一句短语“你好”。而在这样的语境下来找寻历史的温度则显得特别有难度,正如李勇政在作品《送给你》(2013)的介绍文字中所提到的“希望在历史场域中显示那些未被解决的问题,并期待唤起一些思考”,作品采用赠送参观者《新华日报》复制品的方式展开,同时在现场放置老式油墨印刷机。在信息如空气般充斥所有人生活的时代,握在手中的报纸不失物质感,同时附加了时间的印记与错位,并代替创作者发出追问:那些“未被解决的问题”都去哪了?但这些“未被解决的问题”却伴随着新闻的每一次诞生,新闻的死亡则是被标注了时间的“报纸”。 chaussure asics pas cher   《传递一块砖》(2012年)的创作早于《送给你》,两件作品在时间上前后延续,形式上也有共同点:传播(传递),不同的是传播(传递)的主体,是一种主动与被动的讨论。作品《送给你》似乎是对《传递一块砖》探讨回应的一个曲面。网络——确切的说是从自媒体开放以来,传播的源头也被完全开放了,当事者永远比新闻记者离现场更近一步,而当事者的经历与感受是最为真实的,不需要新闻记者再次去身临其境。同时,相机手机化的普及,让“有图有真相”的新闻的真实性超过了文字——虽然这种真实性不断地被质疑,这种质疑的来源则是来自于新闻媒体最拿手的对图片的更改。除真实性之外,主体的转变以及对“第二历史”的排斥成为《传递一块砖》这件作品所探讨并不断传递——思考的再次开始。艺术家在这件作品中更像是一位事不关己的观察员,不断观察由自己抛出的“砖”的变化,这样的传递不免涉及艺术家敏锐地采取网络传递这一途径所引发的空间问题。空间问题似乎是个古老的话题,是艺术家——尤其是视觉艺术家所加以利用和改造的课题,这一课题集中体现着图像学所研究呈现的技术与观念。在艺术品之后,艺术品与其所存放的空间也成为重新认识艺术品的重要课题,像大地艺术等特有形式就是在追求特定的空间与场域,装置艺术也不例外。《传递一块砖》正是如此,它所涉及的作品空间有着可控的广度,同时也利用互联网来构织了一个近似蜂巢式的多维度互联场域——每个人都对这块砖有不同的表达,又在不断地重建和消解表达的意义,与其他的空间构织所不同的是,李勇政既是这个空间构织的始作俑者、编程者,同时也是持续审视这个空间与场域的监视者。   作为艺术家的李勇政被人熟知是基于他在装置艺术方面的成绩,也恰恰如此,李勇政的绘画经历常常被忽略,我们不是要强调其绘画方面的成绩,但绘画对于其当下艺术形式的影响是需要纳入研究范围的。虽然人生不能假设,但线性的时间脉络仍然引诱我们对过去进行假设,如果需要梳理李勇政的绘画系列,那么这个系列是基于西方艺术史而产生的——从古典一直到现代,他的绘画涵盖了艺术发展史中的诸多系列,这难以被描述为作品,更像是一种关于艺术认知的日记或笔记,也如日记般的不为太多人所知。《秘密交换》恰恰是基于这一批绘画作品展开的创作,李勇政在2014年5月30日创作发布时也叙述了自己的这些秘密“日记”,“(19)98年到(20)08没参加任何展览,画画是那十年我个人的秘密。我将这批画分割了,最小30cmx40cm,每张独立签名。”在这件作品的设置上,只要给李勇政指定的邮箱写一段不低于300字不为人知的个人秘密故事,便可获得一幅分割好的作品。这是一件吃亏的“买卖”,也恰恰是这样的一种先验的大众心理学的分析,让艺术家在短短一个月内便获得了231份16.4万字的“秘密”,类似这样的创作方法,在李勇政《极度寒潮》(2016)也有着同样的沿用。所不同的是,《秘密交换》如同作品《传递一块砖》,艺术家并未给出作品最后的样貌,与这一人人都会问到的结果相比,艺术家更加关注的是“传递”与“交换”的过程,当然如同被交换来的秘密一样,它们在2015年被李勇政注册名为“秘密交换”的网站,新的加入者可以用新的秘密来交换网站中已有的秘密。   《传递一块砖》与《死亡,我多年的梦想》有着素材来源的一致性,即通过社会中的热点事件出发,所不同的是,《传递一块砖》与《交换秘密》更像是一种游戏编程,这个游戏的核心程序是以社会介入社会。或许约翰·赫伊津哈[Johan Huizinga]在著作《游戏的人》中对游戏的分析,能提供一种可参照的去理解李勇政作品的角度,其在第一章《作为一种文化现象的游戏的本质和意义》中描述道:“游戏是多余的,只有在游戏创造的快乐成为一种必需、达到某一程度时,对游戏的需要才变得急切。游戏可以被推迟或被任意打断。它并不被赋予物质需要或道德责任。它永远不是一桩任务。它只是在闲暇、在‘业余时间’玩一玩。只有当游戏是一项被确认的文化功能时——一项仪式、典礼——它才被置于责任和义务的领域。”同时约翰·赫伊津哈给出了游戏的几个特征,首先“它是自主的[free],实际上是自由的[freedom]。第二个特征与此密切相关,即游戏不是‘平常的’或‘真实的’生活。”第三个主要特征是“游戏的发生地点和时间都有别于‘平常’生活……它是隔离性,它是有限性,它在特定范围的时空中‘演出’它包含它自身的过程和意味。”赫伊津哈所述的游戏中用来描述美的影响的术语——“紧张、均衡、平稳、对峙、跌宕、冲突、解决等等”不仅出现在李勇政作品实施的过程中,参与者与李勇政本人也同样有着这样的体会,以一种“游戏”的方式而非固定形态展开创作,最大的特点在于对艺术家本人的消解,以及对起点的消解。如同李勇政对作品的定义,他对自己的作品也有着描述:“我很少解释自己的创作意图,希望自己的作品只是一个起点,我不想设置什么边界,也不能给出一个具体的答案,它是开放的,能引发一些可能性的感受与思考就OK了,它所有的意义是在与观众交流中产生的。”   “作品只是现实的标本”——这是李勇政对作品的一种定义,《保卫祖国》(2014)正是在这一定义下完成。这件作品的产生有着偶然性——这种偶然性充斥在艺术家对罗布泊的感受之中,罗布泊有着特殊的位置、环境与意义,虽然或许每个人心中都有一个关于罗布泊形象的设想,却鲜有见过罗布泊真容的人。艺术家用影像记录了其用新砖置换罗布泊原有标语“保卫祖国”四字上每一块砖的过程,如同交换秘密一样——李勇政与罗布泊交换了一个“秘密”。或许在将来的某一天,李勇政又会回到罗布泊来取回这些由他放置的砖,当然也有可能让这些砖永远沉默地在罗布泊自然风化,关于未来的设想,只存在于未来的现实。但现在,这些来自已知现实的现成品成为了李勇政反应现实的创作,这在最新的作品《礼物》(2017)中也有着相似的体现。   艺术家的作品体现着他们对于自身在社会、在世界中的身份认知,李勇政的身份认知显然定位于“艺术家”,他实际上的创作又超脱于大多数艺术家的工作范畴。虽然他使用的材料和方法在世界艺术史中并非首创,但这些手段、形式和思路在多年的思考和实践中逐渐清晰,并彼此勾连,构造出一个仅存在于艺术中的艺术家——而非现实中的艺术家本人。 New Balance Homme 彼处的艺术家将此处艺术家在生存现实中的关注点自然转化为一种艺术化的声源,在思维的世界中四处寻求着力点,构成反射,获取回应。回应构织成网,回馈于声源,也再次构建和补充着彼处的“艺术家”——作品不再单独存在,而成为艺术家形象的一种局部转化。在这样的构建方式下,李勇政作为艺术家的形象始终存在于信息世界,被无尽地传播下去。  

2017年2月9日于成都黄土坎 蓝庆伟:四川大学博士,成都当代美术馆执行馆长 (译)康书雅

Li Yongzheng: Investigating Methods of Response Text: Lan Qingwei   Li Yongzheng’s artworks engage with social issues, but I still think of him as a conceptual artist first, interventionist second. asics sneakers His artworks transcend ideologies. Every artist has their individual issues in which they express views on diverse subject matter and materials. nike air max flyknit 2017 We seek to discern whether artist Li Yongzheng is primarily addressing social issues, or whether these issues are a gesture within a much larger artistic expression. “How do you define something in medias res?” This is the question Li Yongzheng continually asks in his work. As he answers this question, he employs a “point of view which is still-seeing”. The point of view in question is not so much the artist’s, but a point of view being ‘accreted’ by audiences. soldes air max pas cher Li Yongzheng uses this very living process as prima materia. His pieces are never merely a finished product, but tend to be material for the making of a wholly new artwork. In his creative process, Li Yongzheng transforms every artwork that’s ever ‘happened’ into new material. The artist re-uses materials in separate artworks, with water and salt as frequent motifs in his body of work. To classify Li Yongzheng’s artwork, one may reach for macrocosmic categories: Responding to Life, Historic Temperature, Social Engagement with Society, and Internet /Games”. Artworks veer from abstraction, towards conscientious and intentional construction. Simple and concrete materials include: water, salt, metal, old paintings and the internet. Construction and assembly techniques are also simple: substitution, transformation and displacement. As with artwork Look! Look! (2013), the viewer is provoked and must respond. Li Yongzheng uses his own approach to answer life’s call. His answer is our world, itself.   Li Yongzheng dwells deeply upon water and salt. Artworks on salt include Salt at Ganren Boqi Mountain (2009), Salt on Wood (2012), Consumed Salt and Gangren Boqie Mountain, and Seized Summit (2015). Works on water include Metal as Medium for Water and Fire (2011), Moist Stele (2013), and Encounters (2014). These artworks constitute a large portion of the artist’s relatively small body of work. As he discusses (sea) water and salt, Li Yongzheng is not so much exploring these individual substances. Rather, the artist focuses on a cycle of generation and destruction. Salt is a representation of life, the sea a great body of water. But the sea expires in salt, which in turn loses itself in water. Life, death and rebirth find play in Death Has Been My Dream for a Long Time (2015), undoubtedly inspired by current social events. The artwork’s title was taken directly from a 13 year old boy’s suicide note. “Death has been my dream for a long time” explained the group suicide of four children, though this is only indirectly related to the whole artwork. Operating along a similar vein, in Consumed Salt and Gangren Boqie Mountain, the artist uses a mist machine to melt a mountain of salt. Using salt bricks from the Himalayan Mountains, the artist is emphasizing the cycle of death and rebirth, reminding us that Himalayan salt bricks source in the sea. A sea dies in a mountain. The mountain dissolves in a sea, returning into lapping waves.   We are bombarded daily with news, information pouring from mouth to mouth. What happened to snail-mail and writing letters? That was when we calmly waited for news to arrive, always waiting longer than expected. In today’s information age, we are stuck inClockwork Orange-like onslaught, unable to process information. We strive to calm ourselves in the onslaught, to hold our sense of self amidst values forged in media-cast shadow. Be it newspaper or internet—no matter how it morphs, we must guard against information. As if written in water, ‘definitions’ proliferate. We are cast at sea and our compass is awry. Li Yongzheng explores ‘definitions’ for even utterances like ‘Hi’. It is increasingly difficult to take historic temperature in our present linguistic environment. Li Yongzheng explains about artwork Free For the Taking (Send for You) (2013) that he “hopes that we can think more about certain historical periods and fields, about problems and questions that were raised but left unsolved”. The artist freely distributes copies of Xinhua Daily newspapers re-printed on-site by an old printing machine. Information crowding out oxygen, we hold the newspaper in our hands, feeling its materiality, witnessing interwoven time stamps, asking after the artist, “Where do all the ‘unsolved problems’ go?” These unsolved problems are constantly born, dying, and reincarnating in time-stamped newspapers.   Free for the Taking followed Brick Relay (2012), the two artworks contiguous and similar in many ways. They both transmit, but in active—passive ways. Free for the Taking is an emanation of Brick Relay, an exploration of its sensibilities. Since social media, possibilities of dissemination are as numerous as people. Those involved are always closer to events than reporters, having the most sincere take on events, combining experience with feeling. News reporters are now redundant. When cell phone cameras take pictures that describe the scene more accurately than words, we still doubt what we see. Perhaps we know how adept the media are at framing a shot. Brick Relay explores post-experiences. Our account of reality morphs and resists ‘second history’. As the brick is relayed from person to person, this inquest begins anew with each transmission. The artist appears as objective and independent investigator, watching his ‘brick’ transform from hand to hand. Li Yongzheng utilizes online portals and postal mail routes to question the interaction of real and virtual spaces. Space is an old question in China, as visual artists utilize and reform spatial parities, researching images’ techne. An artwork seeks the right space to reside within, a space of contextual interpretation. Installation artworks seek ideal space, place and site for display. Brick Relay sought spaces, controlled and uncontrolled, real and virtual. chaussures puma pas cher Each participant found a singular expression in their contact with the brick, reconstructing and dissembling, creating new spaces. Li Yongzheng’s creative space in this work differed from others in that he set the precedent, created the program, and did constant surveillance.   Li Yongzheng is known for his sculptures, not his paintings. We aren’t showcasing his painting, but will study his painterly technique. Life can’t be explained, but linear time tempts us to hypothesize about the past. Sorting through Li Yongzheng’s paintings, one sees a strong Western art historical influence, from classical through modern. These paintings plateau at various points along the history of art development. Hard to talk about, they are like a diary, unseen by most. Secret Exchange derives from these paintings. On May 30, 2014, Li Yongzheng also referred on Wechat and Sina to his painted works as a sort of ‘diary’, “From 1998 to 2008, painting was my personal secret. During this period of time I refrained from participation in exhibitions. I will be cutting up paintings created during this time, the smallest piece being 30 cm x 40 cm. I will sign each one.” All you had to do was send Li Yongzheng a 300 word secret, and the artist would send you one of his own secrets—a piece of his old painting. Not a profitable venture, Li Yongzheng’s insight into popular psychology earned him 231 messages within one month of the “secret exchange”, totaling 164,000 words. Extreme Cold Wave (2016) is a similar artwork, although final results are withheld in both Secret Exchange and Brick Relay. Each person involved will see the artwork as a singular node in the project. Li Yongzheng, of course, emphasizes dual processes of “relay” and “exchange” as primary. Indeed, the artist goes on in Secret Exchange to register “Secret Exchange” online. New participants exchange personal secrets for ones in the secret databank.   Brick Relay and Death Has Been My Dream for a Long Time both take initial impetus from current events and social conflict, but Brick Relay and Secret Exchange more resemble a gaming program, with social engagement within society as central mechanism. In his Homo Ludens, Johan Huizinga analyzed the role of play and games in peoples’ lives, providing us with a unique perspective into Li Yongzheng’s work. Huizinga writes in chapter one, Essence and Meaning of Gaming as a Cultural Phenomenon, that “Games are superfluous. It is only when happiness provided by gaming becomes a necessity that the need for games grows urgent. Games can be postponed or interrupted. They are imbued with neither material need nor moral responsibility. They will never carry with them a sense of responsibility or duty. They are only for leisure, for playing in one’s “free time”. Only when games have a fixed cultural value—as ritual or ceremony—will they be associated with responsibility or duty.” Johan Huizinga points out important characteristics of the game. Firstly, “The game is free. It is freedom. Its second characteristic is closely related with this freedom, in that the game is different from “ordinary” or “realistic” life.” His third main point is, “The game’s time of occurring and happening are separate from ‘ordinary’ life (…) It is separate from life, with its own limitations. The game ‘performs’ its process and implications within a certain arena of simulated time and space,” Huizinga’s language when talking about aesthetic factors within the game include “intense, balance, steady, facing opposite one another, uninhibited, conflict, and resolution”. These also describe Li Yongzheng’s creative process. Both Li Yongzheng and participants in his artworks have this kind of experience, of playing a ‘game’ to mutually develop an artwork. A principle characteristic in this game is the effacement of the artist as well as the erasure of the artwork’s inception point. Li Yongzheng describes both himself and his artworks, “I seldom talk about my intention for an artwork. I set its inception point, but don’t want to limit its development or give definitive answers about the artwork. It’s an open system. If only it generates possibilities of experience and feeling, then I’m OK with it. The entirety of an artwork’s meaning is produced through interaction.   “An artwork is merely a sample.”—This is Li Yongzheng’s definition of his artwork, and Defend Our Nation (2014) is the perfection of this definition. The artwork arises spontaneously, imbued with the artist’s deep feeling for the region, environment and implications of the former nuclear testing site at Lop Nor, Xinjiang. Although many people have their own visualization of Lop Nor, few have ever visited. Li Yongzheng records his artwork on video, using new bricks to replace all old bricks spelling out, “Protect Our Nation”. In this artwork, Li Yongzheng is exchanging yet another ‘secret’. Perhaps one day in the future, Li Yongzheng will return to Lop Nor and retrieve his bricks. Or perhaps he’ll leave them to erode in the wind. Conjectures about the future are only realized in future facticity. For now, the artworks of Li Yongzheng devise ready-mades from present day reality. The artist’s newest piece Gift (2017) is similar in this way.   Artists convey social position and world identity through artwork. moncler Although Li Yongzheng’s identity is that of ‘artist’, his artworks set him apart from most artistic production. His methods and materials, while not without precedent, gain in substance and complement through years of thinking about and implementing artworks. These works increasingly collude with one another to create what we know as the artist—an entity embedded in the artwork, set apart from the artist, himself. Artists tend to mythologize one another as artistic ‘fountainheads’, triggering and responding to each node. These myriad points of inception and response form a network of sound and response, constructing and complementing the ‘artist’. The artwork no longer stands alone. The artwork is merely a singular transformation within the artist’s overall visualization. In this mode of construction, Li Yongzheng’s modality as an artist operates in the world of information, in the realm of eternal dissemination.   Feb 9, 2017, Huangtukan, Chengdu (Translated by Sophia Kidd)  


死亡我多年的梦想-Death Has Been My Dream for a Long Time 杜曦云:2015年6月9日晚贵州省毕节市七星关区4名儿童(系兄妹)服农药中毒死亡,“死亡 我多年的梦想”这句话,据说来自其中一个孩子的遗书。你相信这句话的真实性吗? 传递一块砖-Art on the Internet: Brick Relay 移动互联网时代的来临,对人类生活方式的改变是革命性的,艺术也概莫能外。摄影术的出现冲击了古典艺术,让现代主义应运而生。

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